The Age of Innocence: Wharton’s Novel of Social Class and Manners

“The Age of Innocence,” written by Edith Wharton and published in 1920, is a distinguished work in American literature, acclaimed for its incisive examination of social class, manners, and the underlying tensions in upper-class New York society during the late 19th century. This novel, which won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction, is noted for its rich detail, social satire, and profound character study.

Plot Overview:

Set in the 1870s, the story revolves around Newland Archer, a member of New York’s high society, who is engaged to May Welland, a woman who epitomizes the innocence and conformity of the upper-class. The arrival of May’s cousin, Countess Ellen Olenska, who has separated from her European husband and is considering divorce, disrupts their lives. Newland becomes enamored with Ellen, whose independence and worldview challenge the societal norms and constraints of their aristocratic circle.


  1. Conformity and Individual Desire: A central theme of the novel is the tension between societal expectations and individual desires. Newland Archer’s internal conflict between his attraction to Ellen and his obligations to May and their society reflects the broader struggle between personal fulfillment and social conformity.
  2. Social Critique: Wharton critically examines the rigid social codes and conventions of upper-class society, highlighting the hypocrisy and superficiality that often lurk beneath the surface of seemingly genteel and refined lifestyles.
  3. Change and Tradition: The novel explores the theme of change versus tradition, particularly in the context of the old New York society grappling with the rapidly evolving world at the turn of the century. The characters’ struggles reflect the broader societal tensions of the time.
  4. Love and Marriage: “The Age of Innocence” delves into the complexities of love, marriage, and romantic relationships, especially in the context of societal norms and expectations. The novel questions the traditional notions of marriage and romance prevalent in high society.

Character Analysis:

  • Newland Archer: Archer is a complex character, torn between his duty to the social codes he has been raised to uphold and his longing for a more passionate and fulfilling life, as represented by Ellen Olenska.
  • May Welland: May is the embodiment of the innocence and conformity of their social class. Her character, while seemingly naive, also demonstrates an astute understanding of the societal rules that govern their lives.
  • Ellen Olenska: Countess Olenska is a more independent and free-thinking character who challenges the status quo. Her different perspectives and experiences in Europe contrast sharply with the rigidity of New York society.

Style and Narrative Technique:

Wharton’s writing style in “The Age of Innocence” is elegant and descriptive, rich in detail about the customs, fashion, and social rituals of upper-class New York. Her use of irony and subtle satire exposes the inner workings and contradictions of this society.

Historical and Cultural Context:

The novel reflects the cultural and historical milieu of the Gilded Age in America, a time when old values and traditions were increasingly in conflict with new ways of thinking and living. Wharton’s own experiences as part of New York’s high society inform her insightful depiction of this world.

Impact and Legacy:

“The Age of Innocence” is celebrated for its sophisticated portrayal of the nuances of social interaction and personal dilemma. It has had a lasting impact on American literature and continues to be studied for its themes of social change, moral complexity, and the exploration of human emotions and relationships.

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Depiction of Upper-Class Society:

Wharton’s portrayal of upper-class New York society in “The Age of Innocence” is both detailed and critical. She meticulously depicts the customs, manners, and social events that define this exclusive community, while simultaneously exposing its rigidity, moral hypocrisy, and resistance to change. This depiction serves as both a historical account of a particular social class and a commentary on its values and limitations.

Femininity and Women’s Roles:

The novel explores the roles and expectations of women in upper-class society. Through characters like May Welland and Ellen Olenska, Wharton examines the limited options available to women and the societal pressures they face. Ellen’s character, in particular, challenges traditional notions of femininity and propriety, offering a contrast to the more conventional role embodied by May.

Narrative Perspective and Irony:

Wharton employs a third-person narrative perspective that offers deep insight into Newland Archer’s thoughts and feelings, while also maintaining a certain level of narrative distance. This technique allows for the use of irony, as the narrator often subtly critiques the characters’ actions and the society they inhabit.

Themes of Illusion and Reality:

The novel frequently juxtaposes appearance versus reality, exploring the illusions that characters maintain and the truths they choose to ignore. Newland Archer’s idealization of Ellen and his eventual realization of the nature of his society and his own choices underscore this theme.

Moral Ambiguity:

“The Age of Innocence” is marked by moral ambiguity. Characters are not simply good or evil; instead, they are complex individuals navigating a rigid social structure. This complexity adds depth to the novel and reflects Wharton’s nuanced understanding of human nature and society.

Cultural and Social Transition:

Set at a time of transition in American society, the novel captures the tension between the old world and the new. It reflects the changes in social attitudes, customs, and values occurring at the turn of the 20th century, a time when the United States was moving away from its Victorian past and toward a more modern era.

Literary Influence and Recognition:

“The Age of Innocence” is recognized as one of Edith Wharton’s most important works and a significant contribution to American literature. Its influence is evident in its enduring popularity and its impact on subsequent writers who have explored similar themes of social class, morality, and personal conflict.

Adaptations and Continued Relevance:

The novel has been adapted into films and stage productions, indicating its continued relevance and appeal. Its themes of societal pressures, personal choice, and the pursuit of individual happiness in the face of rigid social expectations continue to resonate with contemporary audiences.


Edith Wharton’s “The Age of Innocence” is a compelling and insightful novel that offers a penetrating critique of upper-class society in the late 19th century. Its exploration of themes such as social conformity, individual desire, and moral complexity, combined with Wharton’s elegant prose and sharp social commentary, make it a classic of American literature. The novel remains a powerful and relevant work that eloquently explores the eternal struggle between societal norms and personal fulfillment.



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